Tinyoxi na Pollination

©Marinda Louw
Tinyoxi ti dumile hikokwalaho ka vulombe bya tona (na switirhisiwa swin’wana) leswi tiswihumesaka. Kambe kuve na kutlakuka eka kulemukisiwa eka nkoka wa vukorhokeri lebyi tinyoxi tibyi endlaka eka ku chela pollen eka swimilani. Nkoka wa tinyoxi ta vulombe tani hi vacheri va pollen wunga tika kuhundza lowu wakuva vahumelerisi va vulombe.

eAfrika Dzonga, swimilani swinwana switshembela swinene eka tinyoxi kuva ti chela leswaku swita kota ku tswala mihandzu. Leswi swikatsa ti strawberries, blueberries nati blackberries, swimilani swa mafurha kufana nati sunflowers, xikan’we nati almonds nati macadamia nuts. Mihandzu yofana nati plums, pears na ma apula nayona yilava tinyoxi leswaku yitakota ku bloma eku heteleleni yi humesa mihandzu.

Vahlayisi va Tinyoxi vs Vabyari va Swimilani

©Louise Brodie
Ntwanano exikarhi ka vahlayisi va tinyoxi na vabyari va swimilani eka migingiriko ya pollination ya hambana kuya hi vinyi va misava na muxaka wa swibyariwa leswinga byariwa, kuvula ka Dr Tlou Masehela wa South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).

Eka misinya yofana na ya malamula na canola laha kunga lavekeki tinyoxi kuva kuva kona pollination, akuna tihakelo kusuka eka n’wamapurasi kuya eka muhlayisi wa tinyoxi, kambe n’wa mapurasi anga lava ndziriso kusuka eka muhlayisi wa tinyoxi kufana na hi vulombe.

Eka swibyariwa leswi lavaka pollination ya tinyoxi kufana na ma apula nati plums, n’wa mapurasi u hakela muhlayisi wa tinyoxi. Laha kungana nkatsakanyo wa swibyariwa na nhova ya ntumbuluko, muhlayisi wa tinyoxi na n’wa mapurasi vanga nyikana swokarhi hiku cincana.

Eka swiyimo leswi, kungava na ntwanano lowutsariwaka ehansi kumbe kungavi na nchumu, kambe hi xitalo laha ku hakeriwaka vukorhokeri bya pollination kutala kuva na ntwanano lowu fikeleriwaka exikarhi ka muhlayisi wa tinyoxi na n’wa mapurasi.

Ntsengo wa Vukorhokeri bya Pollination

Kuhunguteka loku yaka emahlweni kuvakona ka swakudya e Afrika Dzonga ku hunguta vuhumelerisi bya vulombe kuya kwalomu ka 10 - 12 kg hi ndzhawu hi lembe. Leswi swile hansi swinene loko ku pimanyisiwa nale USA (30 kg/lembe) nale Australia (50 kg/lembe). Ku engetela kwalano, ntsengo wa vulombe eAfrika Dzonga wule hansi swinene nakambe wuva ehansi ka ntshikelelo kusuka eka lebyi tisiwaka kusuka ematikweni yale handle laha byinga chipa laha kunga R50/kg (2017). Nakambe, mintsengo leyi yipimanyisiwa nale vuswetini byale USA (R75/kg) na Australia (R80/kg).

Vuhumelerisi byale hansi na ntsengo wa vulombe switlakusa nkoka wa vukorhokeri lebyi hakeleriwaka bya pollination eka vahlayisi va tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga leswaku byi tshama byiri bindzu.

Vulavisisi lebyi endliweke hi Mike Allsopp wa Agricultural Research Council (ARC) na Dr Masehela hi 2017, byi hlamusela leswaku ntsengo wa vukorhokeri bya pollination wu vekiwa hi kulaveka naku kumeka naswona ayi tshami yirikarhi yi fana kuya hi swibyariwa na tinguva.

eAmerica swimilani leswi blomaka emasunguleni ya ximun’wana swotani hiti blueberries nati almonds swiphikizanela vukorhokeri bya pollination, leswi tlakusaka ntsengo wa pollination. Vulavisisi bya vona byi komba leswaku eka malembe nyana yantsongo ntsengo wa pollination eka almond wutlakukile kusuka eka $35 kuya eka $180 kuya hi ndhzawu. Swibyariwa leswi blomaka endzhaku nyana ka nguva yoleyo (e.g. ma apula) yangava na mintlawa yotala ya tinyoxi leyinga kona leswinga chichaka ntsengo wa vukorhokeri bya pollination.

Ntsengo wa Pollination

©Forest and Kim Starr
eAfrika Dzonga, kuna ntsengo lowu amukeriwaka wa pollination. Tihakelo leti swikombiso naswona aswitirhisiwi hi vahlayisi vatinyoxi hinkwavo, swiya hi swibyariwa. Swibyariwa swin’wana switisa ntshikelelo eka tinyoxi kufana na ti berries, makwembe, macadamia nati litchis se vahlayisi va tinyoxi vanwana vanga chaja mali yale henhla ya vukorhokeri bya pollination eka swibyariwa leswi.

Tihakelo ta pollination ti hlayeleriwa kuya hiku tika ka kunghenisiwa ka kuhlayisa tinyoxi kufana na, kuti fambisa, kuphamela chukele na vatirhi.

Ntsengo wa pollination wa 2018 awuri eka R802 hi ndzhawu yinwe ya pollination. Ndzhawu ya pollination swivula ku baku rin’we riva eka ndzhawu yin’we kuringana masiku lawa yanga hundzeki 21. Leswi switlhela swivuriwa pollination wave. Endzhaku ka nkarhi lowu, muhlayisi wa tinyoxi anga hakerisa ntsengo lowu fanaka kumbe vatwanana hiwun’wana endzhaku kaku burisana na n’wamapurasi.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni