Ntumbuluko wa VaTsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Rixaka Leri Kulaka

Vanhu vosungula lava vulavulaka ririmi ra Xitsonga kuva vanghena e Transvaal vangava vafike kwalomuya kava 18th century. Vanhu lava avari vaxavisi lava ava landzelela milambu, laha ava cincisa leswi ava swixavisa swotani hi minceka na vuhlalu kuva vakuma timhondzo ta tindlopfu, koporo na munyu. Ekusunguleni kava 1820s, va vhakeriwile hi lava ava vulavula xi ririmi leri fanaka lava ava hluphiwa hi vahlaseri va va Nguni. Hinkarhi lowu VaTsonga lava a va tshama etibuweni ta lwandle akuri vanhu lava avalo titshamela voxe tani hi rixaka leri vulavulaka ririmi rin’we ntsena kambe vari na maendlelo yo hambana nyana ya ndzhavuko kambe avanga fumiwi hi munhu. Mintlawa yavona leyintsongo ayi sihalala kuva yi ngheneleriwa hi va Nguni.

Ntlawa wohetelela wa va Nguni kuva wuta fika eka ndzhawu ya vona akuri masalela ya mavuthu ya Ndwandwe, ehansi ka Shoshangane, lava vanga xanisiwa swinene enyimpini ya Shaka na nyimpi ya maZulu etibuweni ta nambu wa Mhlatuze, kusuhi na laha namuntlha hinge hile Ulundi. Vahlampfa lava vafike vatshama kusuhi na nambu waka Tembe, e dzongeni vuhuma dyambu bya laha namuntlha kunga Swaziland, kungase hela nkarhi va hundzukela eka Vatsonga, va fambela e n’walungwini kutshunela e Limpopo Valley. Kurhula koka kungari kahle ku tumbulukile loko va Ndwandwe (kumbe Shangaan) vasungule ku veka vanhu lava ava vulavula ririmi ra Xitsonga eka swivandla swavona.

Shoshangane

Tiko ra va Nguni e n’walungwini wa ndzelekani wa Zululand akuri leri ari pandzisa maZulu nhloko, leri ariri kaya ra van’watipolotiki naswona ariri nxungeto eka ndzhawu ya nkoka yo xavisela eka yona ya Lourenço Marques (leyi namuntlha kunga Maputo). Mavuthu yantshwa ya ma Zulu ya rhumeriwile kuya en’walungwini hi 1833 kuya hlasela Shoshangane xikan’we naku panicha hinkwavo lava avari eka tlhelo ra yena. Va vutlile Lourenço Marques kutani va tlhava governor wa doroba leriya hi tlharhi ekusuhi na beach. Ekusuhi na mpfuxelelo wa maZulu, Shoshangane na valandzeri vayena vatsutsumile kusuka eka ndzhawu ya vona vakongoma e hansi ka Limpopo Valley. Vatshunelela e nambyeni wa Zambezi loko vanga se ya tshama e dzongeni wa Mosapa (Zimbabwe).

Kusukela kwalano Shoshangane moya wakwe awuri ehansi kutani a tihlanganisa na vanhu lava vulavulaka xi Shona va va Ndau. Hikutirhisa mavuthu lawa yanga engeteleriwa, u ngetelele matimba yayena eka ndzhawu liya exikarhi ka nambu wa Zambezi River na Delagoa Bay. Kantsongo kantsongo kuva na Gaza kingdom, leyi thyiwaka hiku xixima kokwani wa Shoshangane loyi anga tshama ngopfu endzhawini ya Mkuze yale Zululand, laha anga sungula kuhumelela kusuka evuhuma dyambu bya ndzhawu liya naswona hile ka swihlahla swale kusuhi nale tibuweni ta lwandle. Nkarhi wa kurhula wusungula kuva kona, hinkarhi lowu va Ndwandwe kusuka e dzongeni xikan’we na Vatsonga, lava avari endzhawini liya kuringana malembe lawa yotala, vanga sungula ku hlohletelana. Leswi swivuye switiyisisiwa endzhaku ka 1838 loko masocha yotala ya Shoshangane va lova hikwalaho ka mavabyi ya smallpox, kutani a tlhelela endzhaku e Limpopo Valley.

Mavuthu yayena ya xanisile ndzhawu liya, loko arikarhi a panicha valala vayena, vavasati ava endla mahlonga xikan’we na vana, naswona a lava tihakelo tale henhla taku nwi xixima. Nyimpi leyi yi hlaserile tindzhawu timbirhi ta vahlampfa kusuka etibuweni ta milambu. Vaka Nkuna kukatsa na mintlawa leyintsongo varhurherile etlhelo ka nambu wa Olifants laha vanga fika vati veka ehansi ka tinxaka leti vulavulaka ririmi ra xi Sotho, Kaha na xi Lovedu, evupela dyambu bya Lowveld.

Gandlati ra Vumbirhi ra Vahlampfa

Gandlati ravumbirhi ra vahlampfa (Maluleke, Baloyi, Tshauke na Sono) valandzelerile Limpopo kutani vafika vatshama etlhelo ka nambu wa Levubu (Pafuri) ehansi swinene ka vuhuma dyambu bya Soutpansberg nale Drakensberg. Mintlawa yintsongo ya vahlampfa yihlayisile vuhosi bya yona hikuva yitshama eka ndzhawu leyi ayi taleriwile swinene hi mavabyi ya malaria, kambe loko kuriku ava tsakele ku hanya eka ndzhawu leyingariki na mavabyi ava fanele kuya lava nsirhelelo eka varhangeri va vanhu lava ava vulavula xi Sotho, va Modjadji, Podile na Maake lava avari e dzongeni kumbe va Venda e Pafuri laha kunga en’walungwini. Hiva 1850s vahlampfa va Vatsonga va endle kaya ravona kuva ehansi ka tintshava ta Spelonken e Soutpansberg laha muhlampfa wa mu Portuguese, Joäo Albasini, ari kuti akeleni ka ndzhawu yakwe ya vuhosi hi mali leyi angayi kuma loko a xavise mahlonga na timhondzo ta tindlopfu.

Loko vahlampfa va Vatsonga lava avari endzeni vasungule miganga yavona leyintsongo, maxaka yavona ya ngati avari ku xanisiweni etibuweni ta lwandle hikwalaho ka kupfumala ntshamiseko wa tipolotiki. Hi 1858 Shoshangane a lova kutani vuhosi bya yena byi sungula kuhangalaka loko vana vayena va majaha, Muzila na Mawewe, valwela vuhosi. Shoshangane a lave leswaku Muzila kuva yena loyi a salaka na vuhosi, laha Mawewe anga pfumelelani naswona; leswi swi endle leswaku kuva na nkwetlembetano kuringana 10 ra malembe yaku lwa. Hiku pfuniwa hi Albasini na vaxavisi vale Lourenço Marques, Muzila a hlula.

Mawewe a tsutsumela e Swaziland, laha anga fika a kombela ku pfuniwa hi King Mswati l, laha anga hetelela aya tshama e n’walungwini wa Swaziland endzelekanini wa Gazaland. Muzila se asuse ndzhawu yakwe ya vutshamo ya Gaza leswaku yiya hlayiseka ayiyisa e Mosapa, a siya Delagoa Bay yinga sirheleriwangi. Vuxika byin’wana na byin’wana ma Swazi ava sungula nhlaselo wovava swinene eka ndzhawu liya. Hi 1884 Muzila a lova kutani n’wana wakwe wa jaha, Gungunyana, a teka vuhosi. Hosi leyintshwa yisungule kutlhela yiteka vulawuri bya dzonga wa Gazaland. Hi 1889 a rhurhisa ntsindza wakwe wuya ehansi ka Limpopo, a teka rifuwa hinkwaro rale dzongeni riva rayena. Hansa hansa leyi yisungule gandlati rin’wani ra vuhlampfa kuya e Transvaal naswona swi endle leswaku Gungunyana a holova na ma Portuguese.

Gandlati Rintshwa Raku Rhurha

©Dr Peter Magubane
Tani hi ndzhawu ya ntumbuluko ya Witwatersrand, Lourenço Marques ayi kurisile laha se akume na migodi ya nsuku. Leswi swinyike ma Portuguese ku navela xikanwe na matimba yakuva vateka vulawuri bya dzonga wa Mozambique; hi 1895 vuyeni kusuka e Lisbon byi hlule Gungunyana kutani byi nwiyisa evuchavela whawha e Azores. N’wana wa yena wa jaha, Thulilamahanxi, hinkarhi walowo ahari ntsongo, xikan’we na muhlayisi wayena, Mpisane, vatsutsumele e Transvaal Republic kutani vaya tshama e n’walungwini wa nambu wa Sabi ehansi ka tintshava ta Drakensberg,laha sweswi kunga eka xifundzha xa Mhala.

Ku herisiwa ka Gaza ku hetisisiwile endzhaku ka malembe yambirhi loko kupfumala ntshamisekoloku aku rhangeriwe hi un’wana wa socha lerikulu ra Gungunyana atava a tshikeleriwile hindlela ya tihanyi. Leswi swisungule gandlati rintshwa ra kurhurha laha masalela ya vanhu va Gaza empire yanga tsemakanya ndzelekani kutani vanghena e Transvaal. Hi 1910 Mpisane a teka nkarhi wayena waku fuma anyika Thulilamahanxi, loyi anga tekeriwa enhlokweni hi vakulukumba va huvo tani hi mudya ndzhaka hinkarhi lowu Buyisonto ahari e vuchavela whawha, munhu loyi anga lulamela kufuma endzhaku ka Gungunyana. Hi 1922 Buyisonto a huma e vuchavela whawha kutani a rhurhela e Mhala laha anga fika ava murhangeri kona wa malandza ya khale ka old Gaza kingdom.

Hinkarhi lowu Vatsonga ava endla kwalomu ka mune wati phesente ta vanhu hinkwavo va Afrika Dzong. E Transvaal ava tshama eka tindzhawu to hlawuleka. E n’walungwini, laha akuri na tihosi totala swinene, to fana na Xikundu, Mhinga, Xigalo xikan’we na Makuleke, lava ava teke tindzhawu leti atiri ekusuhi swinene na ntanga wa swihari wa Kruger National Park. Kuya kambe le hansi e dzongeni, vaaki lava ava hangalakile valehisile kutshama ka vona e Lowveld. Ekusuhi swinene na milambu ya Levubu na Letaba lontsongo, Lavanga cincela eka xikriste vatshamile emapurasini yale Valdezia, Elim nale Kurulen, vana vavona ava nghena xikolo e Lemana College leyi ayi tlangeriwa swinene.

Kuya le hansi e dzongeni, vaka Nkuna xikan’we na mintlawa yin’wana leyintsongo vatshamile e makumu ka ndzhawu leyi voyameke. Swihluke swa va Nguni lava vulavulaka ririmi ra Shangaans, na vavasati vavona lava vulavulaka Xitsonga xikan’we na valandzeri vavona vatshame eka ndzhawu leyinga exikarhi ka Acornhoek-Bushbuckridge nale dzongeni emakumu ka ntanga wa Kruger Park. Lava kungava kurivona varivoxe ntlawa wa Vatsonga lowu awusele e Ingwavuma—Ubombo districts e n’walungwini wa Zululand. Leswi aswiri swihluke swa Maputo (Mabudhu hi xi Zulu), lava vuhosi bya vona byinga tsemiwa hile xikarhi hi ndzelekani wa Afrika Dzonga na Mozambique. Swinga fani na Vatsonga e Transvaal, avari na vuxaka lebyikulu na maZulu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni