Mintlhontlho na Mikateko eka Vahlayisi va Tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga

© Dawid Smit

Swiphiqo Hiku Hlayisa Tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga

Xiphiqo lexikulu swinene laha Afrika Dzonga iku pfumaleka ka mphamelo wa vulombe. E Afrika Dzonga, kuva ntsena 15% ya vulombe lebyi humelerisiwaka kusuka eka flora ya laha kaya loko kupimanyisiwa na 70% e Australia. Hi ndzhavuko kwalomu ka 70% wa vulombe bya laha kaya fyi humelerisiwa kusuka eka nsinya wa ‘Bluegum’. Muxaka lowu, hambiswiritano wule hansi ka ntshikelelo swinene. Pfhumba ra mfumo, Work for Water, sweswi rile kususeni ka misinya leyi xikan’we na swimilani swin’wana kusuka emilambyeni nalaha kungana mati.

Swiviko swoka swingari kahle swihlohletele vinyi va misava kuva va tsemelela misinya leyi ya bluegum. Aswi koteki kuya hi swatimali kuva u byala misinya kumbe u byala muxaka wokarhi u byalela leswaku kutava na vulombe. Misinya ya bluegum yibyariwa ku endla maphepha kumbe mintsandza, loko mabilomu ya sunflowers na Canola yibyaleriwa ku endla mafurha yo tirhisiwa e makaya. Swimilani swa mihandzu swilava tinyoxi kuri kuva na pollination, kambe ku endliwa ka vulombe kusuka eka leswi swile hansi swinene, loko kuriku swikona.

Ku hlayisa tinyoxi laha Afrika Dzonga swilawuriwa ngopfu hi vanhu lava vati hlayiselaka swingari enawini, kwalomu ka kutlula 1000. Kuna kwalomu kale hansi ka 50 wa vuhlayiselo lebyikulu, van’wamapurasi lava xavisaka vangana tindzhawu ta 1 000 kumbe kutlula. Van’wamapurasi vantshwa vatinyoxi e Afrika Dzonga vahlayiwa hikokwalaho ka kukala ka laha nectar yikumekaka kona. Kusukela eka malembe yava 2000 kuve na swikoxo swaleswaku kuhumelerisiwa ka vulombe bya Afrika Dzonga swinga tlakusiwa kuya eka 50 000 ton.

Leswi akova kunavela ntsena naswona swifanele ku langutisisiwa kahle. Hambiswiritano kuna ku antswa loko swita eka vulawuri bya ti colonies. Tani hi migingiriko yin’wana na yin’wana yavupurasi, vurhonwani bya laveka. Ku endla leswaku ntumbuluko wuti endlekela hi woxe, swinga endla leswaku kutala tinyoxi letinga onhaka eka vanhu.

Nkateko wo Hlayisa Tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga

Hambi sweswi kungana swiphiqo leswi hlayiwaka laha henhla, swivonaka kahari na vuswikoti swinene eka industry ya kuhlayisa tinyoxi laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga. Mali leyi tisiwaka hi pollination sweswi yihundza leyi vulombe byi yitisaka. Eka khume ra malembe lawa yanga hundza, kulaveka ka vukorhokeri bya switlakukile swinene exikarhi ka 10% na 15% per hi lembe. Kuvile na swikombiso swaku andzisiwa eka industry ya macadamia, ngopfu ngopfu eka tindzhawu leti ti hisaka ta laha Afrika Dzonga kufana na Limpopo na Mpumalanga provinces.

Kuna kulanguteriwa ka kubyariwa ka kwalomu ka 6 000 ha ya misinya yati blueberries loku kulavaka ku endliwa. Misinya leyi yita byariwa eka malembe ya 7 (kusukela 2017), ngopfu ngopfu e Western Cape.

Exikarhi ka 30 000 na 40 000 wa mintlawa ya tinyoxi yita laveka kuva yi pollinate ti blueberries. Vahlayisi va tinyoxi, se vanga sungula kutilulamisela leswaku kutava na kukula eka ntirho wa vona. Ndzulamiso eka tihakelo ta pollination wuta tisa mali yovonaka xikan’we na ku hlohletela leswaku kuva na vanhu vantshwa vanghenaka eka bindzu leri ra tinyoxi. Tani hileswi Afrika Dzonga yinga hambana na matiko ya nwana, bindzu ro hlayisa tinyoxi rita boheka ku lulamisiwa ku fikelela swiyimo swa laha kaya.

Mapfhumba yaku fambisa mabindzu kuya hiku endla matirhelo yantshwa na malawulelo switava na nkoka swinene. Ku onhiwa ka laha kutshamaka tinyoxi swahari xiphiqo lexikulu naswona vukhamba byita boheka ku hunguteka. Tindzhawu tinwana leti lavaka ku vekiwa tihlo kutava ku phamela tinyoxi, kuti hlayisa hi xixika naku ti andzisa.

Vulavisisi eka Kuhlayisa Tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga

Vulavisisi eka bindzu ro hlayisa tinyoxi nabyona abyi tshamisekangi, laha kungova na mulavisisi un’we ntsena loyi anga thoriwa hiva Agricultural Research Council. University of Pretoria, hile tlhelo ya khumbeka eka vulavisisi bya tinyoxi. Tani hi leswi bindzu ro hlayisa tinyoxi ringa rintsongo naku avanyisiwa, mpfuneto wa timali awutshami wuri kona. Xiave xa mfumo naxona xina nkoka swinene. Ku nghenelela kusuka eka mabindzu yan’wana ya mihandzu ya deciduous, ya sub-tropical xikan’we naya mbewu swita laveka swinene loko kuriku kuya e mahlweni ka vukorhokeri bya pollination swita languteriwa kusuka eka vahlayisi va tinyoxi.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni