Dikgwetlho le Ditšhono tsa Baruanotshi mo Aforika Borwa

© Dawid Smit
Mo Aforika Borwa, dinotshe tsa tswine le ditlhagiswa tse di amanang le tsona (sk. Tswine ya dinotshe, boka ya ya dinotshe, propolis) le ditirelo (go dulafatsa mo ntshodikunong ya dijalo) go nna le seabe sa lotseno la go feta diranta tsa dibilione tse 16 ngwaga le ngwaga (2016). Seno se akaretsa ditiro tse di ka nnang 180 000 mo intasetering.

Kgolo mo thuanotsheng mo Aforika Borwa e lekanyeditswe e le ruri le go tshosediwa ke dintlha tse di latelang (le tse dingwe tse dintsi): tlhaelo ya dijo tsa dinotshe (mafulo a tlhago), bogodu le tshenyo ya metshitshi, ‘bothata ba Capensis’, tlhaelo ya go nna le seabe ga puso le tiro le ka tiriso e e sa siamang ya dibolayadisenyi, le fa e le gore tshedimosetso e e leng teng ke e lekanyeditsweng ka mo Aforika Borwa. Le fa go ntse jalo, go na le ditšhono mo intasetering, bobedi ka ntlha ya kgolo le dipeeletso tsa isago.

Tlhaelo ya Dijo tsa Dinotshe

Bothata mo intasetering ya boruanotshe mo Aforika Borwa ke gore go na le metswedi e e lekanyeditsweng ya mmudula o o nonneng ka poreteine le botshe ba dinotshe. Kwa Australia, go fitlha 70% ya tswine ya dinotshe e ne e ntshiwa kuno mo nageng, fa go tshwantshanngwa le bokana ka 15% mo Aforika Borwa. Mo Aforika Borwa, bontsi jwa tswine ya dinotshe (70%) bo ntshwakuno go tswa mo ditsheding tsa ditlhare tsa eucalyptus tse di jaaka motswedi wa botshe. Fela ditlhare tsa eucalyptus le dimela tsa batswakwa tse dingwe di tlosiwa ka go dirwa mo mananeong a bosetšhaba a go tloswa ga ditswakwa (Go Direla Metsi).

Dimela tsa dithunya tsa setlogo ke motswedi o o lekanyeditsweng le dimela tse dingwe tsa setlogo tse di ka neelana ka metswedi ya pharologano ya mmudula le botshe e mengwe di a tlhagolwa ke ntata ya go jala ntshokuno e le nnosi. Bošeng jaana (2018) dikomelelo le melelo ya naga kwa Kapa Bophirima go ya pele di fokotsa dijalo tsa mafulo a dinotshe. Se se tlisa tlhokagalo e e bonako ya go tlhama gape, boleng jo bo siameng jwa mafulo a dinotshe, ka mananeo a go jala ka bontsi.

Ngaka Tlou Masehela wa patlisiso ya SANBI e tlhagisa gore ntshokuno ya dinotshe e ile kwa tlase thata go simolola ka 2010 go ya 2015 ka ntlha ya tlhaelo ya mafulo a a siameng, e feleditseng mo tlisongteng ya ditoneng tsa tswine ya dinotshe di ka fetang 3 500 ngwaga le ngwaga go simolola ka 2010. Totatota, Aforika Borwa e kgona go ntshakuno ya bokana ka 40% ya tswine ya dinotshe eo e e ntshakunong ka bo 1980.

Bogodu le Tshenyo ya Metshitshi

Baruanotshe gantsi ba tshwanetse go baya mo lefatsheng le e seng la bona go letlela dinotshe go fula. Ka jalo, metshitshi e thata ya go e sireletsa le go e baya leitlho. Metshitshi e a utswiwa le tswien ya dinotshe e a rekisiwa ka bokhunkhuntshwane. Disenyi di kaya fa dinotshe e le tsa ‘tlhago’ mme ba na le tshwanelo ya go di kuma.

Mo patlisisong ya gagwe ya PhD mo a tlhatlhobang ditiro tsa baruanotshe tse di farologaneng mo Aforika Borwa, Ngaka Masehela o fitlhetse ditatlhegelo ka ntlha ya bogodu le bosenyi di ne di le kwa godimo mo diporofenseng tsotlhe tse di robongwe mo Aforika Borwa, gantsi e direga mo metshitshi e neng e bewa mo dikarolong tsa ponalong ya bogareng bontsi bo leng mo kotsing ya ditiragalo tse e ne e le mafatshe a temothuo. Bogodu le bosenyi gantsi di ne di nyemisa baruanotshe mooko go baya metshitshi kwa mafelong a a nang le mafulo a a mantsi a tlhago.

Dikgato tsa tshireletso jaaka go bofa metshitshi, dihoko tsa tshireletso le go tshwaya metshitshi di nnile le katlego e e lekanyeditsweng. Ngwaga le ngwaga, baruanotshe ba itemogela ditatlhegelo tse di boitshegang ka ntlha ya bogodu le tshenyo.

Malwetse a ‘Bothata ba Capensis’ le Dinotshe

Notshe ya kwa Kapa ka kakaretso bo ipeela mo dikgaolong tsa pula ya mariga tsa kwa bophirima le borwa ba Kapa fa dinotshe tsa Aforika di diragala mo bokone kwa dikgaolong tsa pula ya selemo mo nageng ya rona. Mefuta e mebedi ya diphedi e ‘kgaogantswe’ ke gaolo ya leide e e fetelelang mo dikgaolong di le pedi tse di tsentsweng leidi. Dinotshe tsa kwa Kapa (Apis mellifera capensis) di ka ntshakuno bobedi ba tona le tshegadi tsa bana ka jalo, a ntsha kgosigadi mo tshelammogong me e nnile tlhoka kgosigadi. Mme gape di ka tsenela ditshelammogo mo tikologong ya Aforika (Apis mellifera scutellata) mme di ya di bolaya kgotsa tsa dira gore di tlogela motshitshi wa tsona.

Mo diporofenseng di le robedi tswa ka bokone mo Aforika Borwa, ‘bothata jwa Capensis’ bo tswela pele go tlhatloga, go feleletsa mo go feta 50% ya ditshelammogo tse di latlhegang ngwaga mongwe mongwe. Go ya ka molao wa Aforika Borwa, ditshelammogo tsotlhe tseo di tlhasetsweng ke Capensis tshwanetse go senngwa ka bonako. E lekanyeditswe ke Mokgatlho wa Patlisiso wa Temothuo (ARC) gore ‘bothata jwa Capensis’ bo feleletsa mo go di ka nnang 30% tsa ditshelammogo tsa dinotshe tsa kgwebo tsa Aforika di latlheganf ka ngwaga.

Kwa porofenseng ya Kapa Bophirima, ‘bothata jwa Capensis’ ga se tlhobaetsa boroko, le gale baruanotshe mo porofenseng ba kgarakgatshega ntlha ya American Foul Brood (AFB). Bolwetse bo ba baketheria bo ama 10 - 20% ya ditshelammogo tsa baruanotse ba ditiro tse dinnye le go feta 40% mo baruanotsheng ba ditiro tse dikgolo. Go na le ga jaanong jaana ga go na kalafi (jaaka antibiotics) amogelwa mo Aforikaborwa. Se se raya gore baruanotshe ba tshwanetse go bolaya (ka go fisa) ditshelammogo tsotlhe tse di tshwaetsegileng go thibela go anama ga bolwetse.

Ditšhono tsa Baruanotshe mo Aforika Borwa

Ditirelo tsa tulafatso di na le tšhono e e gaisang thata mo intasetering ya boruanotshe mo Aforika Borwa. Boleng jwa ditirelo tsa tulafatso ya maungo tseo di dueletsweng, merogo, peo le dijalo tsa oli gammogo le intaseteri ya thamane mo Aforika Borwa, e kgolo thata go feta tswine ya dinotshe le dintsho kuno tse di amanang le dinotshe.

Kgolo ya thamane ya makadamia le intaseteri ya borekhu jwa botala jwa loapi di tshwara kgonagalo e kgolo thata ya barua notshe ba ba ka kgonang go tlamela ka ditirelo tsa tulafatso tsa dijalo tseno tsa dijo. Dithamane tsa makadamia di a jalwa kwa diporofense tsa Limpopo le Mpumalanga tsa Aforika Borwa.

Go jalwa borekhu jwa botala jwa loapi jo bo ka nnang diheketara tse di 6 000 go tloga ka 2017 di setse di simolotswe, gantsi kwa Kapa Bophirima. Porojeke eno e tla tswela pele dingwaga di le supa mme e fopholediwa gore e ka nna bonnye ba 30 000 (le go fitlha 40 000) ya metshitshi e tla tlhokega go dulafatsa borekhu bo.

Ngaka Masehela gape o oketsa ka gore intaseteri ya baruanotshi mo Aforika Borwa le yona e ka sekaseka ditšhono tse di amanang le go tokafatsa tshireletsego ya motshitshi, tiriso ya dithekenoloji tse dintšhwa mo boruanotsheng, gongwe go tlhokomela kgosigadi le go tlhopha mekgwa e mešwa (dithulaganyo tsa tswwadiso). Go godisa mmaraka wa tswine ya dinotshe go botlhokwa thata mme e ka tokafadiwa ka go ntsha kuno ya tswine ya dinotshe ya ditiriso tsa melemo.

Translated by Lawrence Ndou