Martial Eagle
Martial Ngculungculu

© Shem Compion
Martial Eagle.

Ligama

Martial Ngculungculu

Kutiveta kwato

Ngutona titinkhulu kutotonkhe tingculungculu letikhona la Afrika futsi tinemandla lamakhulu, tiyakhona nekunconcotsa indvodza lendzala tinyawo tayo. Tinemandla lamanengi enyaweni lunye kutsi tingaphula umkhono wendvodza. Ingculungculu lenkhulu la Afrika, iMartial Ngculungculu ikala emapawundi lalishumi nakune (6.5 kg) bese luphiko lwayo likuma lokusitfupha kuya kuma inchi lamane. Inema inchi lamashumi lamatsatfu nakubili budze. Tindzawo tangetulu tinsundvu lotopele kanye nalokumhlophe esiswini lokunelibala lelimnyama, lemilente imuhlophe bese inetingalo letinkhulu. Inyoni lesengakakhuli kahle ibukeka ihlukile kunaleto lesetitindzala.

Kudla kwato

Etindzaweni letinye tinyoni takha indlela lemcoka yekudla, lokufaka ekhatsi guineafowl, francolins, bustards, kanye naletifuywako. Tinyoni letinkhulu njenge Stork sase Europe lesabhalwa kutsi siwele etandleni te Ngculungculu ye Martial saba yinyamatane. Etindzaweni letinye lokudla kuba tilwane letinkhulu, ikakhulu ema hyrax kanye netinyamatane letincane. Tilwane letinkhulu njengematfole etimphala latsatfwako, kanye naletinye tingobiyabe, kanye netimbuti letifuywako, netimvu. Tilwane letifana nema mongoose ngalesinye sikhatsi tiyatsatfwa, kujwayelekile nekutsatsa ema Serval cat kanye nabo Jakalazi; kanye netinyoka letimbalwa kanye nemigololo lemikhulu. Idla noma yini lekhona, ngekunconota tinyoni, hyrax kanye nalokufiyiwe. Ayatiwa idla inyama yesilwane lesitifele ngaphandle kwemvu lefile.

Kwakhiwa

Tilulu takhiwa etihlahleni, akunandzaba kutsi tifikakuphi ngebudze kusuka kumashumi lamabili kuya kumashumi lasiphohlongo ngekuma ngetulu kwemhlaba, kepha kakhulu takhiwa etihlahleni letikhulu endzaweni, tikhula etindzaweni letinyukelako noma emkhatsini wematje, lapho khona lenyoni ikhona kahle kususa lesilulu sayo. Timbili tiba nasinye noma timbili tilulu, letitisebentisa iminyaka leminyenti uma kungasiwo munye, kepha kwentela kuhlangana lokuyimphumelelo lokwenteka kanye. Kunetindlela letinkhulu letisuka kutine kuya kuletisitfupha ngekuma kwekugabanca nekuma lokune ngekucina, phindze imise kwesinki uma iyinsha-futsi ivulekile kunekushona phansi. Takhiwe ngetintsi letindze kuya kuyinye nale iyihhafu ngema inchi, timiswe ngemacembe laluhlata. Tingasetjentiswa tinyoni letinengi iminyaka leminingi. Sikhatsi sekuhlangana singacala ngetindzawo letehlukene ngesikhatsi setimvula, tikhatsi letomile naticala, noma ekugcineni kwesikhatsi sesomiso, bese letinye tindzawo talesikhatsi tiyachubeka tiye esikhatsini setimvula. Kufukamela kwentiwa nguletinsikati, kepha lendvuna iyatiwa kutsi iyahlala nayo. Lelensikati ishiya silulu nayiyokudla futsi ayikavami kuphiwa ngulelendvuna esilulwini.

Lesikhatsi sekufukama singaba malanga lamashumi lamane nesihlanu. Lelencane ivame kubalula itatabuke nayisandza kutalwa, kepha ibeseiyangekuya ibenemandla emva kwemalanga lamashumi lamabili. Emva kwemalanga lamashumi lamatsatfu nakubili ibese iphuma tinsiba, bese tivala kahle lenyoni nase inemalanga lamashumi lasikhombisa. Lelencane iphiwa batali bobabili kudla ize ifike emalangeni lamashumi lasitfupha budzala, iba netimphiko letikahle, nayicala kubamba inyamatane yayo. Nayicala kundiza lelensikati isala eceleni noma esilulwini, bese lelendvuna ifuna kudla bese iyakuletsa. Lelensikati isala kulendzawo bese imukela kudla kulelendvuna emalanga lamashumi lasihlanu. Emva kwaloko lelensikati ifuna kudla bese ikuletsa esilulwini bese lelendvuna lengakavami iyavela. Lelencane iyanakwa ngemalanga ayo ekucala, kepha emva kwemalanga lalishumi nakune bese lelensikati ayisachubeki nekuyinaka ngaphandle kwasebusuku. Lenyoni lencane, emva kwekwenta kundiza kwayo kwekucala, (ngemalanga lalikhulu), ingabuyela iyophumula esilulwini emalangana, besekusuka lapho iyahamba kulesilulu. Ibese ihlala ikhweshile kulendzawo yesilulu sikhashana, futsi ingabonwa hhayi khashane kusuka etinyangeni letisitfupha.

Kutiphatsa kwato

Ingculungculu lenkhulu la Afrika, lenanyoni yetindzawo letilulile tase thornbush kanye nasetigangeni letitfolwa eAfrika yonkhana, letivela futsi nasetindzaweni letivulekile nasemahlandzeni. Le ngculungculu ye martial icitsa sikhatsi sayo ngesilinganiso lesingu 85% ngesikhatsi sayo lesiphumulile bese iphindze itsatsa ngentsatsa kusa (10 am). Ngalenandlela yehla ngekuphangisa kusuka nga 3pm futsi ichutjwa linani. Ema martials nawo atsatsa ematfuba ngekuhhesha kutingela.

Ema martial wona angacitsa sikhatsi lesiningi andiza angatingeli, bese ngetitjalo letigcwele, kepha yenta kutingela kwayo lokunengi ngekundiza, phindze nekubulala noma kuhlasela ngekutsatsa ngelitubane lelikhulu, noma ngendlela lehlukile emahlatsini lavulekile, lelitubane lelehlukile lichujwa licala lapho timphiko tibanjwe ngasemuva. Ingabulala ngaseceleni, kepha yenta ngendlela lengakajwayeleki, futsi tindlela tayo letinengi tekubulala tiyamangalisa etindzaweni letivulekile ngalelitubane lalengculungculu nayihlasela ikhashane.

Timbili tingculungculu temartial tingaba nemakhaya lanako konkhe langaba ngu 50 wema square ngelimile, futsi tiyayaluka ngetulu kwaloko. Tivama kutingela emalanga endzaweni yinye bese tiyasuka tiya kulenye, ngenca yekuvela kwekubulala emalanga lamahlandla endzaweni yinye. Iyakwati kuhambela khashane kunaleletinye tingculungculu tala Afrika, futsi iyakwati kubhacela emadvodza.

Noma ingasiyo lehambako kakhulu ngendlela lecinile yenta kunyakata ngekundiza libanga lelilikhulu, futsi timbili tingeke setiftolwe eceleni kwalapho tihlanganela khona. Kuyinjwayelo yalotingela tinyoni kanye netilwane letincane letisendzaweni levulekile, kepha aphindze atingele letifuyiwe tendvodza tilwane, noma ibulala kancane kunekukhulunywa kwayo. Ngekulinganisa iyinyoni leyimbasela endvodzeni.

Lapho titfolwa khona

Lengculungculu ye martial itfolwa etigangeni kanye nakuma thornbush etindzaweni tase Afrika eningizimu lese sahara, kusuka eSenegal kuya eSomalia kanye naseningizimu ye Cape. Iyatfolwa nasemahlandzeni lavulekile, kepha ayivami kuya emahlatsini, noma ijwayele kuhlanganela emahlatsini ngasekugcineni kwendzawo.

Latin name

Polemaetus bellicosus