Imvelaphi yema Tsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Kukhula kwe Sive

Bantfu labakhuluma-siTsonga bekucala labangena kulendzawo yayiyi Transvaal kumbe benta njalo ngesikhatsi selishumi nesiphohlongo mandvulo. Bekukhona batsengisi labamcoka labekalandzela tindzawo temifula, lapho bashintjisa ngemphahla kanye nebuhlalu kwentela kutfola lolokucinile lokumhlophe kwendlovu, icopper ne luswayi. Ekucaleni kwemnyaka wa 1820, kwangena emakholonisi lafucwa ngemaNguni ngekuwangenela elusentseni lwelwandle. Ngalesi sikhatsi lama Tsonga labekahlala etindzaweni letivulekile ngaselwandle acala tindlu letihlangene letinebantfu labahlobene lebebanemasiko lafanako kepha bebenta nayinye intfo lekhomba ngebuhulumende. Emacembu abo lamancane bekanika kwala lokuncane kulabo bemaNguni bebakadze babangenela.

Licembu lema Nguni lekugcina lelafika kulendzawo kwakungulabaphuma kumabutfo emaNdwandwe, ngaphansi kwa Soshangane, lelatfola kuhlukunyetwa etandleni ta Shaka kanye netimphisi takhe tema Zulu emfuleni we Mhlatuze, dvute-nalapho kutsiwa namuhla yi Ulundi. Lababebabhacile bahlala ngase Mfuleni we Tembe, eningizimu-mpuma yalapho sekuyi eSwatini lamuhla, kepha ngaphambi kwakadzeni bagucukela eTsonga, bagudla ngase nyakatfo ngekutsanyela lokupholile kuya eSigodzini se Limpopo. Kuthula lokungekho malula kwakheka ngesikhatsi lama Ndwandwe (noma emaShangaan) acala kufaka labakhuluma-siTsonga etindzaweni tabo.

Soshangane

Indzawo yema Nguni eZululand enyakatfo kwemncele kwakuyintfo lecansulako kumaZulu, lobekusebenta njengelikhaya kulabo bembusave labacoshwa nekuhlalisa kahi indlela lemcoka yentsengo ku Lourenco Marques (nyalo yi Maputo). Licembu lelisha lema Zulu latfunyelwa enyakatfo ngemnyaka wa 1833 kutsi liyohlasela Soshangane bese lihlupha bantfu bakhe. Batsatsa iLourenco Marques bafaka losodolobha elwandle. Ebusweni balamaZulu, Soshangane nebalandzeli bakkhe babaleka ekuhlaleni kwabo eSigozini lesiphansi saseLimpopo. Bashona ngase Mfuleni iZambezi ngaphambi kwekuya bayohlala eMosapa (eZimbabwe).

Kusuka lapho Soshangane wacala kugwamandza futsi watsatsa emaShona-lakhuluma siNdau. Asebentisa emabutfo akhe langetekile, wakhulisa emandla akhe ngendzawo lesemkhatsini weMfula iZambezi ne Delangoa Bay. Ngekucina lesigodlo se Gaza, lesetsiwe ngekuhlonipha mkhulu wa Soshangane lobekaphile esigodzini sase Mkuze eZululand, wacala kuphuma ngase Mpumalanga yeliwa kanye nasemahlatsini etinkhungu asemnceleni wendzawo levulekile lenkhulu. Sikhatsi sebudlelwane lobuthulile sacala, ngesikhatsi lapho emaNdwandwe lasuka eningizimu nema Tsonga, labe akadze akhona kulesigodzi iminyaka, ngekucina ayengana. Loku kwabonwa ngemnyaka wa 1838 ngesikhatsi liningi lemasotja aSoshangane afa ngekugula lokutsite, wase ubuyela emuva eSigodzini sase Limpopo.

Emabutfo amosha lendzawo, abe yena apanisha titsa takhe, abopha bomake nebantfwana, phindze afuna kubhadalwa lokusindzako ngekuhlonishwa. Lona msindvo wasusa tindlela letimbili tebabhaci kusuka endzaweni lenkhulu levulekile. Lama Nkuna kanye nalamanye emacembu lamancane basuka baya enshonalanga ngase Mfuleni we Olifants bayotibeka ngaphansi kwesive salabakhuluma-siSotho, iKaha ne Lovedu, enshonalanga lese Lowveld.

Sigaba Sesibili Salababhacile

Ligagasi lesibili lalababhacile (Maluleke, Baloyi, Tshauke na Sono) balandzela iLimpopo bayohlala ngase Levubu (Pafuri) uMfula noma tindzawoletiphansi ngase Mpumalanga ye Soutpansberg ne Drakensberg. Libhande lelincane lalababalekako bagcina sikhulu sabo ngekutsi bahlale basetibhedlela, etindzaweni letisetulu ngesifo sembuzulwane kepha, kube bebafuna kuhlala ngasetindzaweni letinekuphila bekumele batfole kuvikeleka kwebaholi kufana nalabakhuluma-siSotho Modjadji, Podile na Maake eningizimu noma bakhulumi besi-Venda Pafuri enyakatfo. Ngemnyaka wa 1850 tihambi tema Tsonga tenta likhaya labo etinywenitentsaba iSpelonken lese nyakatfo. Kule Soutpansberg lapho khona lobekatsandza kubona tintfo weliPutukezi, Joäo Albasini, wakha sigodlo sakhe ngemali bekayakha ngekutsengisa tigcila kanye netintfo letimhlophe leticinile letitfolwa etindlovini.

Babe lalababhacile bemaTsonga ngekhatsi bacala kwakha imimango lemincane, bagadzi babo ngasemnceleni bekumele beme ngekuchubekisa tembusave. Ngemnyaka wa 1858 Soshangane washona sase lesigodlo sicala kubhidlika ngoba emadvodzana akhe, Muzila na Mawewe, bakhunga timphondvo esihlalweni. Soshangane abetse Muzila njengemuntfu lophumelelako, loko lobekulwelwa ngu Mawewe; loku kwachubela kuminyaka lelishumi yekulwa. Kwangetetelwa ngema Albasini nebatsengisi eThendeni lelikhulu le Lourenco, Muzila watfola sandla lesingetulu.

Mawewe wabaleka waya eSwatini, lapho atfola lusito lwe Silo Inkhosi Mswati weKucala, wagcine ahleti enyakatfo yase Swatini ngasemnceleni ne Gazaland. Muzila wasusa inkhaba ye Gaza wayibuyisela ekuphepheni kwe Mosapa, washiya le Delagoa Bay ingakavikeleki. Ngabunye busika lama Swati bekenta kungenela lokubuhlungu kulendzawo. Ngemnyaka wa 1884 Muzila washona yase indvodzana yakhe, Gungunyana, wangena esikhundleni sakhe. Lenkhosi lensha yatama ku-vusa kuphatsa eningizimu ye Gazaland. Ngemnyaka wa 1889 wasusa lidolobha lakhe lelikhulu laya etindzaweni letiphansi tase Limpopo, agucula lapho efika khona eningizimu ngesigodlo sakhe. Lokuphatamiseka futsi kwacala sigaba lesisha sekuhamba kuya eTransvaal lokwafaka Gungunyana abenemsindvo nemaPutukiezi.

Sigaba Lesisha seTekuhamba

©Dr Peter Magubane
Njengendzawo yendalo ye Witwatersrand, Lourenco Marques abesekhule nalamasimu lamasha egolide lawatfola. Loku kwanika leliPutukezi intsandvo kanye netaba tekucala kugwamandza iMozambique lese ningizimu; ngemnyaka wa 1895 licembu lase Lisbon lehlula Gungunyana lamuvalela eAzores. Indvodzana yakhe, Thulilamahanxi, intfo leyayiyincane, kanye nalomdzala, Mpisane, babaleka baya eNdzaweni Yebantfu eTransvaal bafike bahlala enyakatfo yeMfula iSabi ngasetinyawenitentsatjana ye Ntsaba ye Drakensberg, esigodzini lesikhona nanamuhhla iMhala.

Lokuwa kwe Gaza kwaba tinyanga letimbili letiphelele muva ngesikhatsi kuvuka lokwakuholwa ngumunye webantfu ba Gungunyana kwatsatfwa. Loku kwagcizelela sigaba lesisha sekuhamba njengetintfo letisele tesigodlo sase Gaza letewela umncele tangenela eTransvaal. Ngemnyaka wa 1910 Mpisane wamemetela buholi bakhe ngekukhetsa Thulilamahanxi, lowakhetfwa yikhansela yemndeni njengendlalifa ngekungabikhona kwaloboshiwe Buyisonto, lomphumeleli ku Gungunyana. Ngemnyaka wa 1922 Buyisonto waphuma ejele wabuyela eMhala wayoba ngumholi walabalahliwe besigodlo lesindzala sase Gaza.

Ngaleso sikhatsi labakhuluma-siTsonga bebatsatse emaphesenthi lamane alokuphelele kwenombolo yebantfu base Ningizimu Afrika. eTransvaal bahlala etindzaweni tetigodzi. Enyakatfo, tigodlo leticishi titinkhulu, kufana naleto te Xikundu, Mhinga, Xigalo ne Maluleke, leyo lesele lenebantfu labangenako noma edvute ne Kruger National Park. Kuya eningizimu, imimango lesakakile enta kuphila eLowveld. Dvute nemanti emifula iLevubu ne Letaba Lencane, Bazalwane bahlala eMishini yema Swiss kumapulazi eValdezia, Elim ne Kurulen, bantfwababo bebangenela kujabulela Likolishi le Lemana.

Kuya eningizimu, emaNkuna kanye nemacembu lamaningi lamancane ahlala ngaseWeni. Labebahambile balabo labakhuluma-siNguni emaShangaan, nebafati babo labakhuluma-siTsonga kanye nebalandzeli, bahlala kulendzawo phakatsi kwe Acornhoek-Bushbuckridge nasekupheleni kwe ningizimu ye Kruger Park. Kumbe ngilo licembu lelikhulu lelilodvwa lalabakhuluma-siTsonga lelalise Ngwavuma—esigodzini seLubombo enyakatfo ye Zululand. Laba bekubahambi baseMaputo (Mabudhu ngesiZulu), le sigodlo sabo sajutjwa kabili ngakulomncele emkhatsini we Ningizimu Afrika ne Mozambique. Akufani nema Tsonga lase Transvaal, bewavale kungakhulumisani nemaZulu.

Translated by Nsika Khoza