Iintjhijilo kanye Namathuba Wabafuyi Beenyosi eSewula Africa

© Dawid Smit
ESewula Africa, iinyosi kanye nemikhiqizo ezihlobene nayo (isibonelo, i-beeswax, propolis) kanye nemisebenzi yazo (ukubuthelela kwepova zinyosi ukwenzela ukukhiqiza iintjalo) ziletha imali engaba ngaphezulu kwe-R16 billion qobe mnyaka (ngo-2016). Lokhu kwenza ithuba lemisebenzi engaba yi-180 000 ngaphakathi kwebubulweli.

Ukukhula kwerhwebo lokufuya iinyosi eSewula Africa kunomkhawulo begodu kusatjiswa mafektha alandelako (kanye namenye amanengi): ukutjhoda kokudla kweenyosi (ukudla kweemvelo), ubusela, kanye nokonakalisa kwezindlu zeenyosi, umraro we-Capensis, ukungazi bandakanzi kwakarhulumende kanye nezenzo nokungasebenzi kweembulali nunwana, nanyana kunelwazi elincani elikhona eSewula Africa. Nanyana kunjalo, kunamanye amathuba ebubulweneli, kokubili wokukhula kanye nokutjala iimali kwakusasa.

Itlhogakalo Yokudla

Umraro webubulo lokufuya iinyosi eSewula Africa elipheleli emithonjeni ezele nge-pollen ezele amaprotheyini kanye ne-nectar eenyosini. Enarheni yenge-Australia, kukhiqizwa iliju elingafika emaphesendini ayi-70 elikhitjhwa emthini womhlobo we-eucalyptus njengomthombo we-nectare. Kodwana umuthi we-eucalyptus kanye nezinye iintjalo zangaphandle ziyakhitjhwa emaprogremini wenarha le wokukhipha iintjalo zangaphandle ezibizwa bona (yi-Working for Water).

Iintjalo zendabuko zamathuthumbo mthombo onganamkhawulo kanye nezinye iintjalo zendabuko ezingaletha i-pollen emihlobohlobo begodu imithombo ye-pollen iyasuswa ukukhiqiza i-pollen emhlobo munye. Isomiso samvanje, kanye nemililo yamadlelo esifundeni se-Western Cape iragela phambili ngokuphungula iintjalo ezidliwa zinyosi. Lokhu kwenza itlhogeko yamsinya yokuzitjala godu, ngamaprogramu wokutjala ukudla kwenyosi kwekhwaliithi okunengi.

Udokgodere u-Tlou Masehela werhubhululo le-SANBI litjengisa bona umkhiqizo weenyosi sele wehle khulu ukusukela ngonyaka ka-2010 ukuya-2015 ngebanga letlhogakalo yokudla okuhlekweenyosi, ekurholela ekutheni kuthunyelwe enarheni le amatoni angaba ngaphezu kwe-3 500 weenyosi qobe ngonyaka kusukela ngonyaka ka-2010. Isewula Africa, irhona ukukhiqiza iliju eliyi-40% kwaphela elakhiqizwa eminyakeni yabo-1980.

Ubusela kanye Nokoniwa Kwezindlu Zeenyosi

Abafuyi beenyosi bavamise ukubeka izindlu zeenyosi endaweni ekungasiyo yabo, ukuvumela iinyosi ukobana zithole ukudla. Umphumela walokho kuba kobana bangarhoni ukuziphephisa kanye nokuzitjheja. Izindlu zeenyosi ziyetjeiwa kuthi iluju lazo lithengeswe e-black market. Abarhononelwa bathi iinyosi ngezemvelo begodu banelungelo lokuzithapha.

Erhubhululweni lakhe lokufundela i-PhD lapha Agade ahlola iindlela zokufuya iinyosi eSewula Africa, udokgodere uMasehela wathola kujwayelekile bona abafuyi balobe iinyosi ngebanga lokwetjiwa kwezindlu zeenyosi kanye nokoniwa kwazo emfundeni ezilithoba ze Sewula Africa, khulukhulu lapha iznldwezi zibekwe eendaweni lapha zibonakala khona khulukhulu eendaweni ezisemaplasini. Ukwetjiwa kanye nokoniwa kwazo kuvamise ukuqeda abafuyi bazo amandla ukubeka izindlu zazo eendaweni lapha zingarhona ukuthola khona amadlelo wemvelo amanengi.

Iindlela zokuvikela izindlwezi ekugcekezweni, ukuvikela amahogo wazo kanye nokuwamerega akuphumeleli. Ngonyaka, abafuyi beenyosi baloba khulu ngebanga lokwetjelwa kanye nokonelwa.

Umraro we-Capensis kanye Namalwelwe Weenyosi

Inyosi yeKapa ijwayele iimfunda ezine zulu lebusika lepumalanga kanye netjingalanga lokha inyosi ye-Africa iba khona ezulwini lepumalanga lehlobo enarheni. Imihlobo yeenyosi emibili le iyahlukaniswa a hybrid zone overlapping the two regions where these two species hybridize. Iinyosi zeKapa (Apis mellifera capensis) zirhona ukukhiqiza abentwana abasikazi nabaduna, njeke zingakhiqiza indlovukazi emhlambini enganayo indlovukazi. Kodwana zirhona ukuhlasela umhlambi we-African bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) zizibulale nanyana zizikatelele kobana zitjhiye izindlu zazo.

Eemfundeni ezisepumalanga eSewula Africa, imiraro ye-iragela phambili nokwenzuka, ekurholela ekulobeni emihlambi engaphezu kwe-50% qobe mnyaka. Ngokuya komthetho weSewula Africa, zoke iinyosi ezingenwe bulwelwe be-Capensis kufanele zibulawe. Ihlangano ye-Agricultural Research Council (ARC) ibala bona imiraro ye-Capensis irholela ekutheni kulotjwe i-30% yeenyosi ezifuywa ngehloso yokwenza inzuzo qobe mnyaka.

Esifundeni se-Western Cape umraro we akusimraro, nanyana kunjalo abafuyi beenyosi esifundeni batlhagiswa bulwelwe be-American Foul Brood (AFB). Ubulwelwe bamabhakutheriya bubamba iinyosi eziyi-10 - 20% emabubulweni amancani afuya ukudla, kanye nangaphezu kwe-40% emabubulweni amakhulu wokufuya iinyosi. Ngeskhathesi akunapengu (efana nama-antibiotics) avunyelweko eSewula Africa. Lokhu kutjho bona abafuyi beenyosi kufanele babulale ngokutjhisa iinyozi ezinye nezinye ezinobulwelobu ukukhandela ukurhatjheka kwamalwelwe.

Amathuba Wabafuyi Beenyosi eSewula Africa

Imisebenzi yokupholunethiwa liyaphumelela ebubulweni leSewula Africa. Igugu lensetjenziswa ezibhadalelwako zokupholonethiya iinthelo, imirorho, imbewu kanye nentjalo zokwenza amafutha sekubalwa nebubulo lamantongomani eSewula Africa, likhulu ukudlula umrholo nanyana imali evele ngokwenziwa kweliju kanye neminye imikhiqizo ehlobene neliju lenyosi.

Ukukhula kwebubulo lamantangomani we-macadamia kanye nebubulo lama-bluberry lingasabalalisa iinsetjenziswa zokupholonethiya eentjalwenezi. Amantongomani we-macadamia atjalwa esifundeni seLimpopo kanye neMpumalanga eSewula Africa.

Sele kuthomile ukutjala ama-blueberry ayi-6 000 ku-ha ukusukela ngo-2017, khulukhulu esifundeni se-Western Cape. Iprojethi le izokuragela phambili iminyaka elikhomba begodu kuqatjangwa bona kuzokufakwa okungasenani iinyosi eziyi-30 000 (ukufika ku-40 000) imihlambi emitjha le izokusetjenziselwa ukupholunethiya iintjalo zama-berry.

Udorhodere uMasehlela ungezelele wathi ibubulo lokufuywa kwenyosi eSewula Africa ingafunisisa amathuba ahlobana nokwenza ngcono ukuvikeleka kwezindlu zeenyosi. Ukusetjenziswa kwethekunoloji yokufuya iinyosi, mhlamunye ukukhulisa indlovukazi kanye namaprogremu wokufuya. Ukukhulisa imakethi yenyosi kuqakathekile begodu kungenziwa ngcono ngokukhiqiza iliju elinenthako zokwelapha.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe